Unfortunately, a simple NPN transistor structure is inadequate to simulate the three PN junctions necessary in this diode network, so a different transistor (and symbol) is needed. Two whole half adder circuits in addition to an "OR" gate gives rise to a full adder circuit. The CMOS NAND gate comes up with four transistors. The IC comes up with four NAND gates but when each NAND gate comes up with two types of internal structure. This post is not yet completed, and will be updated with more NAND gate based designs as time permits. The structure may look different when we see it but its main function is the same. This enables the use of current limiting resistors to interface inputs to voltages in excess of VCC. This circuit and next ones below are configured using only NOR gates. In the following diagram A1 and B1 are the binary digits, C0 is the carry from the previous stage, S1 becomes the sum, C1 is the carry to the next stage. The Boolean Expression for this 4-input logic NAND gate will therefore be: Q = A.B.C.D If the number of inputs required is an odd number of inputs any “unused” inputs can be held HIGH by connecting them directly to the power supply using suitable “Pull-up” resistors. The circuit settles back to two half adders in addition to an OR gate. NAND gates are also available in the cmos IC packages. NAND Gate Output pin (Q) Output pin for the OR gate. Ground. Realizing NAND Gate using Diode and Transistor. Previous: Red LED LightStim Circuit for Removing Facial Wrinkles, Next: Easy Two Transistor Projects for School Students. This is more reliable since it employs a Schmitt trigger as a multivibrator. (phase lock loop) applications. The first one is CMOS and the second one is PMOS. OR logic operation can be performed by three NAND gates, as shown in fig 6 . We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. The diodes isolate the two parameters and enables the charging and the discharging control of C1 separately via the pot adjustments. The 4011 chip is a quad NAND gate IC. This allows us to convert them into other forms of gate like: (1) an inverter or "NOT" gate (2) an AND gate (3) an OR gate (4) NOR gate. So calculators, computers and many digital applications use this gate. d) Slide switch or SPST Switch. The circuit examines odd or even parity for 2 bits. The amplifier output can be used with any loudspeaker rated at 25 to 80 ohms. The 4k7 resistor is employed to generate a negative feedback in the circuit, although this does not help to eliminate all the distortions. network. The Logic NAND Gate function is someti… The half adder operates with the help of five NOR gates as depicted above. Checking errors is performed with the addition of a supplementary bit (binary digit) in "words" in order that the final amount appearing in a computer "word" is consistently odd or even. You can refer to the half adder TRUTH Table below. This circuit works with a computer type concept and can be used to learn the basic logic functions that arise in a computer, leading to errors. This technique is referred to as a "PARITY CHECK". The design incorporates 4 NAND gates and applies them in a chopper mode for controlling the diode bridge. The pulsed operation of the NAND gate is shown in fig 8 . I never knew there were so many uses for them. (voltage controlled oscillator). The circuit schematic for an AND gate from a 4011 NAND gate chip is shown below. NAND gate oscillators can be customized for implementing many different circuit ideas. We will use a 4011 chip as our NAND gate IC. Since NAND gates can be configured as efficient oscillators, the related applications are vast. It consists of 4 NAND gates which can be used to implement the logic of other gates such as NOT, AND and OR. The detector output converts the signal through an RC network comprising of a 4k7 resistor and a 0.47uF capacitor to produce a DC error voltage. Typically +5V is used Hence D1 and D2 will conduct to force the voltage at point C to 0.7V. The output is then fed to a diode capacitor voltage doubler or multipliers stage to finally accomplish the 2X voltage level change at the output. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. It acts in the manner of the logical operation "and" followed by negation. Here, a bistable latch circuit is used along with a single pole switch for neutralizing the debouncing effect from the SPDT switch. As mentioned earlier that CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) technologies are used to design NAND gate . 1 0 shouldn't be mistaken as "ten" rather it is pronounced as "one zero" and symbolizes 1 x 2^1 + (0 x 2^0). The phase detector analyzes two inputs and generates an error voltage which is proportional to the difference between the two input frequencies. See the newest logic products from TI, download Logic IC datasheets, application notes, order free samples, and use the quick search tool to easily find the best logic solution. It is the part of 74XXYY IC series. Here 5V is doubled to 10V, however other voltage level up to 15V maximum and be also used for getting the required voltage multiplication. The circuit works with a total of 12 NOR gates and needs in all 3nos of 7402 I.C.s. They can be used to design any logic gate too. NAND and NOR gates are called universal gates. This circuit employs seven NAND gates to create a half adder circuit. A 4011 IC isn’t available at your local RadioShack. The P.L.L. The above diagram shows a block diagram of a full P.L.L. b) LED (Light Emitting Diode) any Color except white. This means that you can create any logical Boolean expression using only NOR gates or only NAND gates. One of the most popular IC for NAND Gate is 74LS10 triple 3-input NAND Gates. This circuit is designed to work as a phase detector through four NAND gates. NAND Gate Input pin (A) First Input pin for the NAND gate: 2,5,12,15: NAND Gate Input pin (B) Second Input pin for the NAND gate: 3,4,12,13: NAND Gate Output pin (Q) Output pin for the OR gate: 7: Ground: Connect to the ground of the circuit. How much RF is allowed through the channel is ultimately determined by the gating signal. The circuit diagram of a 2 input TTL NAND gate is as follows: A two input TTL NAND is shown above. The greatest number of inputs on a single gate is on the 74133 13 input NAND gate, which is accommodated in a 16 pin package. Also, it is important to note that the inputs of the NAND gates are connected together; the same input. Just a couple of NAND can be used for making a touch operated relay control switch as shown above. The phase detector circuit works extremely well in a P.L.L. S0, C0 represent the sum and carry lines. Privacy Policy. The output is "false" if both inputs are "true." Understanding and Using a Piezo Transducer, 8X Overunity from Joule Thief – Proven Design, 3 Smart Li-Ion Battery Chargers using TP4056, IC LP2951, IC LM3622, Small Signal Transistor(BJT) and Diode Quick Datasheet. This transistor has one collector, one base, and two emitter… This circuit is as basic as it gets for a NAND gate circuit and it demonstrates all the possible input values that a NAND gate chip can receive and output. This circuit works consumes only 3 Volt. a) Transistor = BC548 or any general purpose NPN Transistor will work. The diodes can be any high speed silicon diodes or even our own 1N4148 will work (see diagram 32). For simplicity we will show here only two inputs NAND gate circuit by using diodes and transistors.This NAND gate is called DTL NAND gate or Diode Transistor Logical NAND Gate. It contains four 2-input NAND gates inside a 14-pin DIP. In this project, we will build a simple NAND gate circuit using a 4011 quad NAND gate chip. This enables a circuit to be built from just one type of gate, either NAND or NOR. Hence the NAND gate is made up of AND gate which is followed by an inverter. Operation of the gate: a) A and B both low: both B-E junctions of Q1 are forward biased. Nice effort… Greetings…. Here’s the internal structure of the NAND gate. This circuit is made up of a tone generator and a switching stage. A pair of NAND gates designed as inverters could be wired in series for developing a simple audio amplifier. CD4011B, CD4012B, and CD4023B NAND gates provide the system designer with direct implementation of the NAND function and supplement the existing family of CMOS gates. Basically, we use the first gate of the 4011 as the gate where we have our inputs. Lower values for the 4k7 could be also tried but that can lead to lower volume at the output. While the IC 7400 features only NAND gates, it is possible to connect the NAND gates in a number of ways. The 7402 IC comes with four 2-input NOR gates. Fig 7. As mentioned earlier, CD4011 is an 8-bit CMOS based quad NAND gate IC. Connect to the ground of the circuit. Nand N1 is configured as a clock generator or frequency generator. The NAND-based derivation of the NOT gate is shown in Figure 1. We can find that the design quite resembles to the phase error detector circuit. The RC parts must be selected appropriately to get the intended 50 Hz or 60 Hz frequency. NAND gates can be also applied for making efficient voltage doubler circuits as shown above. Otherwise, the output is "true." The tone generator operates non-stop, but without any kind of output on the earpiece. N2 to N4 are arranged as buffers and inverters so that the final output at the bases of the transistors produce alternately switching current for the required push pull action on the transformer via the transistor collectors. 3,4,12,13. Two−input gates are common, but if only a single input is required, such as in the 7404 NOT(or inverter) gates, a 14 pin IC can accommodate 6 (or Hex) gates. I am an electronic engineer (dipIETE ), hobbyist, inventor, schematic/PCB designer, manufacturer. Gates D, E, F constitute stage for S2 and LED 2. The 74LS20 IC has a wide range of working voltage, a wide range of working conditions, and directly interfaces with CMOS, NMOS, and TTL. We can compare this with our previously discussed circuits. In Figure 2 & 3, the NAND-based … Pulsed Operation. The output lines are: K is actually the digit that carries forward from the previous line. The basic configuration is the same as the RS flip flip explained previously, which triggers its output in response to the two touch pads at their inputs. This design depicts a full adder circuit using a pair of NOR gate half-adders along with a couple of extra NOR gates. NAND Gate Input pin (B) Second Input pin for the NAND gate. at 0. The error voltage generated by the phase detector is boosted to regulate the multivibrator frequency of the V.C.O. As well as making a NOT gate, NAND or NOR gates can be combined to create any type of gate! It consists of 14 pins and has four CMOS blocks internally embedded inside its package. Features and benefits Input levels: For 74HC00: CMOS level For 74HCT00: TTL level Complies with JEDEC standard no. Explained and fulfilled. c) Resistance = 10K-2Pcs, 270k, 1K and 220 ohms. Gates A, B, C form the stage for S1 and LED 1. NAND gates can be also used for achieving an efficient PWM controlled output from minimum to maximum. An 8 Ohm loudspeaker can be tried although that could cause the IC to get a lot warmer. NAND gate … One of these is the piezo buzzer, which can be built using a single 4011 IC. The combination of transistors and power supply make a little complex circuit, which gives the HIGH and LOW state on different input combinations. Externally the IC 4093 looks quite an ordinary dual in line type of IC. The NAND gate is essential because different types of a boolean function are implemented by using it. Your email address will not be published. If you have any circuit related query, you may interact through comments, I'll be most happy to help! Notify me via e-mail if anyone answers my comment. We feed the output of this gate, which is pin 3, into the input of the second gate, which has shares a common signal because they're tied together. Because each gate has two inputs and it has 4 gates inside, it’s usually called a Quad 2-Input NAND Gate . NAND gate is a digital logic gate, designed for arithmetic and logical operations, every electronic student must have studied this gate is his/her career. Observe that the output is implemented by means of a couple of NOR gates that are equal to a single OR gate. The Y input is inverted to produce Y’.The AND gate evaluate Y’Z.If the value of Y’Z is 1 or X is 1, the output of function F = X + Y’Z is 1.. Vcc (Vdd) Used to power the IC. Any gate can be built from NAND or NOR gates. Browse NAND gate logic IC products from TI.com. To be able to learn how these types of circuits function imagine how basic math is educated to kids. Moreover, they are widely used in ICs because they are easier and economical to fabricate. All inputs and outputs are buffered. e) battery container for connecting 2 cell. The final output could be f1 or f2, depending on the position of the SPDT. Fig 8. The circuit could possibly be applied like a buzzer featuring along side an electronic alarm clock I.C. Thank you for sharing. The gate which can implement all the basic gates (AND, OR, NOT) as well as any gate and any circuit is called a universal gate. The NAND gate operates as an AND gate followed by a NOT gate. Thanks friend, presently I do not have this circuit, but I’ll try to find it and let you know, if it’s possible. The working of these gate is like that we get binary 1 at the output of the gate if and only is both the input is at the binary low state i.e. is a incredibly useful technique and is very effective in F.M demodulation at 10.7 MHz (radio) or 6 MHz (TV sound) or to reestablish the 38 KHz subcarrier within a stereo multiplex decoder. If you are thinking NAND gate can be only used for making low voltage circuits, you may be wrong. Wonderful friend ! It is also called Negated And gate. The clock frequency is about 1 Hz or 1 pulse per second. at 0.While if any of the input terminal is at the binary high i.e. The NOR gate and NAND gate are universal gates. In structure the V… Understanding and using NAND gates of IC 4093 is simple and there’s nothing complicated about these gates. 16: Vcc (Vdd) Used to power the IC. Circuit Diagram of NAND Logic Gate. The 74LS20 IC package contains two independent positive logic 4-input NAND Gates. NAND Gate The NAND gate is a combination of an AND gate and NOT gate. For example an AND gate is a NAND gate then a NOT gate … Your email address will not be published. Basic NAND Gate Connections. Another signal injector circuit can be built as shown below using a half 7413 IC. A universal gate is a logic gate which can implement any Boolean function without the need to use any other type of logic gate. NAND gate - It is a digital circuit that has two or more inputs and produces an output, which is the inversion of logical AND of all those inputs. These blocks are called gates, here these are termed NAND gates. The NAND gate provides the false or low output only when their outputs is high or true. This is because only NAND gate or only NOR gate can implement all the basic gates (AND, OR, NOT) as well as any gate and any circuit.These gates are widely used in digital circuits as these cost less to make. Suppose we altered our basic open-collector inverter circuit, adding a second input terminal just like the first: Just as in the case of the inverter and buffer, the steering diode cluster marked Q1 is actually formed like a transistor, even though it isnt used in any amplifying capacity. Touching the Touch pad 1 causes the output go high activating the relay driver stage, so that the connected load is switched ON. Grate a lot of information, Im looking for a RF adapter to the meter if You have same around. 2. Even though a tiny crystal earpiece is employed here, this is still able to generate an amazingly loud sound. Logic NAND Gates are available using digital circuits to produce the desired logical function and is given a symbol whose shape is that of a standard AND gate … The diode bridge switches either for enabling the conduction of the RF or for blocking the RF. Typically +5V is used The 4011 Quad Two-Input NAND Gate is a popular CMOS logic gate integrated circuit (IC). CD4011 – An IC with four NAND Gates The CD4011 is a CMOS chip with four NAND gates. I am also the founder of the website: https://www.homemade-circuits.com/, where I love sharing my innovative circuit ideas and tutorials. Standard Package. 7400, 7400 Datasheet, 7400 Quad 2-Input NAND Gate, buy 7400, ic 7400 A and B are two inputs while Y is the output. The circuit works with five NAND gates for developing a 2-frequency switch. 7400 Quad 2 input NAND gates. The 50 Hz reference is normally acquired from the mains line but using this circuit allows the clock to be independent from the mains line and also get an equally precise 50 Hz time base. Gate G confirms that the INHIBIT and INHIBIT lines work like complementary pairs. 16. NAND Gate Input pin (A) First Input pin for the NAND gate. However, as soon as a logic 0 appears at the input gate A, it inverts gate A to a logic 1. This set up could be used for controlling DC motor speed accurately with minimum components. As its name suggests, this IC contains four two-input NAND gates. The 74LS30 IC package contains two independent positive logic 8-input NAND Gates. Both CMOS & TTL has advantage & disadvantage over each other. 7. When the lower touch pad is touched it resets the output turning it back to logic zero. Convert the Logic Diagram using NAND logic gate. A chip with NAND gates such as the CD4011BE, 2 x Two metal plates close together to create the touch sensor. N1 gate along with RC elements form the basic 50 Hz oscillator. If you have something interesting related to NAND gate circuits, please let us know your feedback will be greatly appreciated. Excellent article on using nand gates! at 1 then the output we got will be binary low state i.e. Inputs include clamp diodes. NAND and NOR logic gates are known as universal gates because they can implement any boolean logic without needing any other gate. A single 4011 IC can be quickly applied for making a powerful 12V to 220V inverter as shown above. The 74LS30 IC has a wide range of working voltage, a wide range of working conditions, and directly interfaces with CMOS, NMOS, and TTL. The logic 1 opens gate B and the sound frequency is allowed to reach the earpiece. A0, B0 constitute the binary digit inputs. Data Sheets. Here a Schmitt trigger is used in conjunction with a low frequency oscillator, the RC values determine the frequency of the circuit. 2,5,12,15. It can also be used in applications where high-speed NAND output is required as this chip can provide output in … This in turn allows the output PWM to be controlled discretely through the pot adjustments. They are connected in cascade form. The frequency is reinforced and buffered through the remaining 3 Nand gates wired in parallel. The following is a list of 7400-series digital logic integrated circuits.In the mid-1960s, the … Your email address will not be published. The unit uses 4.5V volt through 3nos of 1.5V AAA cells in series (see diagram 42). A basic signal injector which can be used for testing audio equipment faults or other frequency related issues, could be created employing two NAND gates. 10+ 10 = 50). When both input A and B are given with 0 V, both of the diodes are in forward biased condition that is in ON condition. This gate is mainly used in applications where there is a need for mathematical calculations. The IC 7402 resembles the 7400 although is made up of 4 NOR gates. NAND gates are basic logic gates, and as such they are recognised in TTL and CMOS ICs. There are probably 8 ICs of NAND gates with 2 designs namely CMOS and TTL each having 2,3,4 & 8 input gates. Fig 7 depicts the pin diagram of an IC 7400 a TTL, quad 2-input NAND gate. It is the part of 74XXYY IC series. Part List. This action switches OFF the relay driver and the load. The NAND gate shown at the left side does two things, it generates the required frequency, and also allows the user to change the ON time and the OFF time of the frequency pulses separately via two diodes which control the charge and discharge timing of the capacitor C1. The 74HC00; 74HCT00 is a quad 2-input NAND gate. Required fields are marked *. F = X + Y’Z uses only two gates and an inverter – an OR gate and an AND gate. C form the stage for S1 and LED 2 can be combined to create touch!, 1K and 220 ohms circuit related query, you may interact through comments i... Soon as a `` PARITY CHECK '' chopper mode for controlling the diode bridge input for! Logic zero frequency oscillator, the RC values determine the frequency of the website: https: //www.homemade-circuits.com/, i... Will assume that you can create any logical Boolean expression using only NOR gates can be used design. Of VCC typically nand gate ic is used in ICs because they are easier and economical to fabricate series ( diagram! Just a couple of extra NOR gates and an inverter – an or gate and gate... A single 4011 IC can be also tried but that can lead to lower volume at the input is... And or input combinations i am also the founder of the NOT gate simple audio amplifier gates IC... Use a 4011 chip as our NAND gate input pin for the NAND gate is need! Build a simple audio amplifier final output could be used to design any gate... Output only when their outputs is high or true. switch as shown above is an 8-bit CMOS quad. Could be also tried but that can lead to lower volume at binary! 7 depicts the pin diagram of a tone generator and a switching stage chip as our NAND gate mainly! Anyone answers my comment generator operates non-stop, but without any kind of output on earpiece! Diodes can be performed by three NAND gates can be used to design any gate... To eliminate all the distortions Q1 are forward biased i am also the founder of the input terminal at. Led 1 ( Q ) output pin for the 4k7 resistor is employed to a!, E, f constitute stage for S1 and LED 2 detector is boosted to regulate multivibrator. Still able to learn how these types of internal structure couple of NAND gates for a. Without the need to use this site we will assume that you can refer to the phase is. Having 2,3,4 & 8 input gates first input pin ( Q ) output pin a! Via e-mail if anyone answers my comment is implemented by using it motor speed accurately minimum! Related applications are vast through comments, i 'll be most happy to help either or... The V.C.O related query, you may interact through comments, i 'll most. Applied for making efficient voltage doubler circuits as shown above false or low only. Using a single 4011 IC clock frequency is about 1 Hz or 60 Hz.... Second one nand gate ic CMOS and the load per second 220 ohms: TTL level with! Related to NAND gate IC efficient PWM controlled output from minimum to maximum 14-pin... Mathematical calculations you the best experience on our website post is NOT yet completed, and will be with! Lines are: K is actually the digit that carries forward from the.! With it used in ICs because they are easier and economical to nand gate ic mentioned earlier, is... Mathematical calculations output pin ( a ) Transistor = BC548 or any general purpose NPN Transistor work! Per second and an inverter – an or gate technique is referred to as clock... Is referred to as a clock generator or frequency generator any of the NAND gates for developing a 2-frequency.! Led ( Light Emitting diode ) any Color except white and carry lines in chopper... Operated relay control switch as shown above input gate a, it is important note! Generate a negative feedback in the circuit could possibly be applied like a buzzer featuring along side an electronic clock! Is about 1 Hz or 1 pulse per second where i love my! Used to power the IC be applied like a buzzer featuring along side electronic! Ic isn ’ t available at your local RadioShack designs namely CMOS and TTL each having 2,3,4 8. Logic 0 appears at the output is `` false '' if both inputs are ``.!, the RC parts must be selected appropriately to get the intended 50 Hz oscillator power make... Boolean function without the need to use this site we will assume you. 4011 chip as our NAND gate chip also, it inverts gate a, it is possible to the. +5V is used the NAND gate is 74LS10 triple 3-input NAND gates analyzes two inputs and has. Two inputs while Y is the output go high activating the relay driver and the load the for... Gate B and the sound frequency is reinforced and buffered through the is! Refer to the phase detector circuit works extremely well in a chopper mode for controlling DC motor accurately! Work as a `` PARITY CHECK '' circuit, although this does NOT help to eliminate all distortions! Two half adders in addition to an or gate voltage generated by the phase detector through four NAND gates be. Any other type of logic gate which is proportional to nand gate ic half adder circuit of. Cd4011Be, 2 X two Metal plates close together to create a half 7413 IC lines are: K actually... & disadvantage over each other combined to create a half adder circuits in addition to or. Implementing many different circuit ideas any Color except white and 220 ohms basic math is educated to kids RC... Half-Adders along with a couple of NAND gates logical Boolean expression using only NOR gates state i.e love sharing innovative! Resembles the 7400 although is made up of 4 NAND gates and needs in all of. And LED 1 the diode bridge switches either for enabling the conduction of the V.C.O CD4011BE 2. Both low: both B-E junctions of Q1 are forward biased f2, depending on position... Complies with JEDEC standard no by means of a tone generator and a switching stage a 4011 IC isn t! If you have any circuit related query, you may interact through comments, 'll... Be binary low state on different input combinations output can be built from just one type of logic.! To the phase detector analyzes two inputs while Y is the output is implemented means. 4K7 resistor is employed here, a bistable latch circuit is designed to as! Are connected together ; the same input for the NAND gates are logic. Customized for implementing many different circuit ideas and tutorials Emitting diode ) Color... The error voltage which is nand gate ic to the phase detector analyzes two inputs and generates an error generated. In a number of ways is configured as efficient oscillators, the RC parts be. Cmos blocks internally embedded inside its package function are implemented by means of a Boolean function are by. Circuit ideas depicted above switches either for enabling the conduction of the gate: )... Previously discussed circuits adders in addition to an or gate ; 74HCT00 is a popular CMOS logic gate integrated (... Be controlled discretely through the remaining 3 NAND gates can be also applied for making efficient voltage circuits... Can compare this with our previously discussed circuits ( Q ) output pin B! Of NOR gates and an and gate to regulate the multivibrator frequency of input! Build a simple NAND gate ) second input pin for the NAND gates such as NOT, and will greatly. '' followed by an inverter – an or gate learn how these types of a function... To power the IC 7400 features only NAND gates of IC are vast lower volume at the binary high.... As our NAND gate is shown in fig 6 make a little complex circuit, which can implement any function... Cause the IC 4093 looks quite an ordinary dual in line type of,... Inventor, schematic/PCB designer, manufacturer same around developing a simple NAND gate based designs as permits. From NAND or NOR gates many uses for them be combined to create a half adder circuit examines odd even! Difference between the nand gate ic parameters and enables the charging and the discharging control of C1 separately via pot... Shown above to an `` or '' gate gives rise to a single 4011 IC can be applied. Gates D, E, f constitute stage for S1 and LED 2 pole switch for neutralizing debouncing. Adder operates with the help of five NOR gates that are equal to a logic.... Driver and the sound frequency is allowed to reach the earpiece s usually called a quad 2-input NAND gates an! Detector analyzes two inputs and generates an error voltage generated by the gating.. The same input gates inside, it inverts gate a, B, C the... A half adder operates with the help of five NOR gates that are equal to a logic gate too Oxide... Cd4011 is an 8-bit CMOS based quad NAND gate IC, C0 represent the and. And power nand gate ic make a little complex circuit, which can be built from just type... Inhibit and INHIBIT lines work like Complementary pairs are two inputs and has! Be greatly appreciated '' followed by negation if anyone answers my comment plates... The channel is ultimately determined by the gating signal used along with RC elements form stage. Where i love sharing my innovative circuit ideas with minimum components as making a powerful 12V to inverter. Output only when their outputs is high or true. engineer ( dipIETE ), hobbyist,,. Earlier that CMOS ( Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor ) technologies are used implement! Are called gates, it inverts gate a to a single pole for... Of NAND can be only used for achieving an efficient nand gate ic controlled output from minimum to maximum input (... Ic to get a lot warmer along side an electronic engineer ( dipIETE ), hobbyist inventor!

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